The Hague, The Netherlands


The original inhabitants of Angola were the Khoisan (hunter-gatherer), dispersed and little numerous. The expansion of the Bantu peoples, arriving from northern Angola from the second millennium, forced the Khoisan to retreat into the South where residual groups still exist today, in Angola, Namibia and Botswana.
The Bantu were farmers and hunters. Its expansion, from West-Central Africa, took place in small groups, which relocated in accordance with the economic and ecological circumstances.
Between the 14th and 17th centuries, a series of kingdoms were established, being the main the Kingdom of Kongo which covered the Northwest of Angola and a track adjacent to the current Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Congo and Gabon; its capital stood at M’banza-Kongo and its heyday was during the 13th and 14th centuries. Another important Kingdom was the Kingdom of Ndongo, constituted at the time the South/southeast of the Kingdom of the Congo.
In 1482 reached the mouth of the Congo River a Portuguese fleet, commanded by Diogo Cão who immediately established relations with the Kingdom of the Congo. This was the first European contact with inhabitants of the territory.
However, he settled in 1575 a factory in Luanda at a point of easy access to the sea and the proximity of the Kongo and Ndongo. Gradually took control, through a series of treaties and wars, a band that extended from Luanda towards the Kingdom of Ndongo. This territory, of a dimension still rather limited, it passed later to be designated as Angola. By means of the Kongo, Ndongo and Matamba, Luanda has developed a slave bound for Portugal, Brazil and Central America who went on to form the economic base.
Portuguese policy in Angola was modified by certain reforms introduced in the early 20th century. The fall of the Portuguese monarchy and of a favourable international environment led to reforms in administration, agriculture and education. With the advent of the new State, extended to the colony, Angola becomes a province of Overseas Portugal (province).
The situation seemed calm and stable. But in the second half of the 20th century, this calm was disrupted by the appearance of the first Angolan nationalist movements. More overtly political organisations first appeared in the late 1950, and began to make demands to organize their rights, initiating diplomatic campaigns throughout the world in their struggle for independence.

The colonial power, however, refused to adhere to nationalist demands, provoking an armed conflict called “armed struggle” in 1961. In this struggle, the main protagonists were the MPLA (Popular Movement for the liberation of Angola), the FNLA (national front for the liberation of Angola), and UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola. After many years of conflict, the country won its independence in November 11, 1975.

Soon after the establishment of independence initiated-if an Angolan Civil war between the three movements, MPLA, FNLA, and UNITA. This civil war that devastated the country ended in 2002, and consequently with the proclamation of the day of peace and national reconciliation the 4 of April of the same year.

It should be noted that in 1992, the first general elections in Angola and since then the country walk safe in consolidation of multiparty democracy, with promulgation in 2010 of the current Constitution in force in the country.
In the course of democratization of Angola, general elections were held in 1998 and 2012, where his Excellency Eng. º José Eduardo dos Santos, was elected President of the Republic of Angola, with an absolute majority.
In Africa, Angola is a country with a strong economic and human potential and as a consequence created the bases of economic and social stability of its people towards the conquest of new values, being in this moment the country to implement the national development plan for 2013-2017, within the framework of the Angola 2025. This program aims to increase the quality of life of the Angolan people.

source: Portal Oficial do Governo de Angola

October 2019
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